# The Code of In-between, longing

This is a short analysis of the interesting elements of the SuperCollider code of In-between, longing. The full code is available at sccode.org. Unfortunately, I can’t provide the sound files, as they are copyrighted. But I hope that this analysis will give you some ideas that you can reuse in your own project.
You can listen to the piece on Bandcamp.

The code below is edited for clarity. If there’s a function/synth that’s not defined here, it’s just a helper function. And if you’re really curious, you can search for it in the full code.
I realise that some of these functionalities could be turned into classes, maybe one day. Drop me a line if you think this could be useful.
Feel free to reach out if you have any questions.

## Variables

Variables are stored in nested dictionaries, with single letter variable for basic types.
This allows for bulk actions (especially on patterns), and reduces the need for explicit declaration (naughty but faster!).

v = (); // Variables
f = (); // Functions
p = (); // Patterns
b = (); // Busses
c = (); // Buffers
g = (); // Groups
i = (); // Synth (instruments)


## Garbage collection

The project is built on almost 1500 different sound files. I originally wanted to run it on a RasperyPi, so I needed to save memory and computing power. Therefore I wanted to only load the files as I used them.
For this, I devised a simple garbage collection system that would free the buffers a given amount of time after they’ve been used.

// 20 seconds delay for garbage collection
v[\garbageDelta] = 20;
// Garbage collection function
f[\toGarbage] = {|buffer, delta = (v[\garbageDelta])|
AppClock.sched(delta, {
buffer.free;
});
};
/*
Load a buffer into b[\sound] and use it
*/
// Free the buffer in 20 seconds
// Make sure to run this after the pattern has finished using the buffer
f[\toGarbage].(b[\sound]);


## Mixer

### Basic structure

Given the complexity of the project, I needed to be able to easily change the mix of the various channels before committing to the final version. I tried to use the dewdrop MixerChannel class, but it was too computationally intense for the project.
Instead I created a ProxySpace and used the built-in visual mixer.

// Create the mixer ProxySpace
m = ProxySpace.new;
// Visual mixer specs
//// Pan width
//// Send gain
Spec.add(mix, ControlSpec(0, 6.dbamp, \amp, 0, 1.0));
//// Volume
Spec.add(\amp, ControlSpec(0, 6.dbamp, \amp, 0, 1.0));
// Display the visual mixer
v[\mixer] = ProxyMixer(m);
CmdPeriod.doOnce({
v[\mixer].close
});


In the ProxySpace, each NodeProxy is a channel, with the following convention:

// Send effects: m[\c00] to m[\c09] (max 10)
// Channels: m[\c10] to m[\c99] (max 90)


While the code of the mixer is a bit complex (see below), the use is more or less transparent. Each channel has a group, (e.g. g[\c10]) where to put all the synths of that channel, and a bus (e.g. b[\c10]) that is properly routed to the respective NodeProxy.
Each channel has a pan/width functionnality using Splay.

v[\nChannels] = 15;
v[\nSends] = 4;
b[\master] = 0;
b[\send] = ();
// Channels
v[\nChannels].do { |i|
// Format the channel name into \cxx
var ch = f[\cKey].(i + 10);
// Create wrapper groups and bus for the NodeProxy
var chWrapper = (ch ++ "Wrap").asSymbol;
b[chWrapper] = Bus.audio(s, 2);
g[chWrapper] = Group.new;
// Bus where to route the audio of the instrument
b[ch] = Bus.audio(s, 2);
// Send the bus to the master bus
Synth.tail(g[chWrapper], \route2, [\in, b[chWrapper], \out, b[\master]]);
// Create the NodeProxy
// Create the channel and play on its private bus
m[ch].source_({|pan = 0.0, width = 1.0|
// Pan/Width
var thewidth = width.min(1 - pan.abs);
var sig = In.ar(b[ch], 2);
Splay.ar(sig, thewidth, 1, pan);
});
// Group where to insert the instrument
};


For the send effects, I use the \mix NodeProxy role to receive each mixer channel. I can then use the default control mix++index to change the send amount:

// Setting channel 18 send 3 to 0.68
m[\c03].set('mix18', 0.68);


### Pattern routing

With this approach, routing a pattern (or a synth) to a given channel is a simple assignment of the out and group keywords in a Pbind. For example:

// Route p[consonants] to channel \c22
p[\consonants] = p[\consonants] <> (group: g[\c22], out: b[\c22]);


## FX

### FX function

I use a simple SynthDef wrapper so that all FX have amp and wet parameters. The call to the function is illustrated in the FX example below.

// FX generator
f[\makeFx] = {|name, func|
SynthDef(name, {|out = 0, amp = 1.0, wet = 1.0|
var sig = In.ar(out, 2);
sig = ((1 - wet)*sig) + (wet*SynthDef.wrap(func, prependArgs: [sig]));
ReplaceOut.ar(out, sig*amp);
};


### Theta wave distorsion

Inspired by Telefon Tel Aviv, it creates a pulsating feeling without altering the quality of the sound itself.
It’s triggered randomly about every minute and lasts between 3 and 10 seconds, with a pulse frequency (freq) varying between 3 and 7 Hz.

// Theta wave distortion
f[\makeFx].(\thetaDistortFx, {|sig, freq = 6.0, preAmp = 0.5|
// Low frequency pulsation
var oldSig, control = SinOsc.ar(freq, 0.0, preAmp);
oldSig = sig;
// Sidechain compression using the low frequency pulsation
sig = Compander.ar(sig, control, 0.9, 1.0, 0.0, 0.001, 0.001);
// Automatic gain compensation
sig = Balance.ar(sig, oldSig);
sig
});


### Morphing convolution reverb

I wanted the feel of the space to evolve through the piece, but I wasn’t satisfied with the algorithmic reverbs. Then I discovered PartConv, SC’s hidden convolution reverb (at least for me until now). Since it only uses mono IR, I faked stereo using a simple Haas effect, depending on the size of the space modelled by the IR.
The irSpectrum buffer is created using the code in the help file.

/ Convolution reverb with mono IR, and Haas delay to give a sense of space
f[\makeFx].(\convRevFx8192, {|sig, irSpectrum, mul, haas|
// Convolution reverb with mono
sig = PartConv.ar(sig, 8192, irSpectrum, mul);
sig[1] = DelayN.ar(sig[1], haas, haas);
sig
});


The main issue with PartConv is the normalisation factor (mul). Because I was morphing between different reverbs, I needed them to have the same amplitude. To solve that problem, I measured the maximum RMS using the RMS UGen from the SC3 extension and used a mul that kept it at around 0.9 for all my IR.
Convolution reverb is a costly process so I didn’t want the 6 reverb to run all the time. Instead I used two send channels (c01 and c02) alternatively. While one was playing a \convRevFx8192 synth, the other one was silent and I could change the synth. All is managed by a small pattern.

// Refresh the impulse response of the quiet send channel
p[\switchReverb] = Pbind(
\amp, Rest(),
// Impulse responses names
\ir, Pseq([\UEMT, \Tower, \Tight, \Arundel, \Underwater, \Demon], inf),
// Channel to refresh
\target, Pseq([\c01, \c02], inf),
// Refresh the reverb at half time before a reverb change
\delta, Pseq([Pfuncn {v[\reverbChange]/2}, Pfunc {v[\reverbChange]}]),
\callback, {
// Free the current reverb from the silent channel
i[~target].free;
// Create the new reverb (with a helper function)
i[~target] = f[\convSetup].(~ir, ~target, 0.0);
// Map the amp parameter of the FX for fade in/out
i[~target].map(\amp, b[(~target ++ \Amp).asSymbol]);
},
);


## Sequencing the parts

The piece is composed of three types of voice events:

• A random narration (\story) ;
• 5 different specific events diving into important topics of the story ([\ands, \incredible, \remember, \colours, \intimacy]) ;
• And a silent part where only the background sounds are heard (\silence).

A \story event is inserted in between each of the specific topic (e.g. \story, \ands, \story, \incredible, \story, \remember, ...), and a \silence event is inserted at random without breaking the order of the other events. To obtain this, I used a Prout that returned the name of the event insde a Pbind. The advantage of the Prout is that you can return a value in the middle of the execution without loosing your position in the code. This allows me to randomly return a \silence event without messing up the rest of the chronology.

Prout({
// Non silent events organised in two sub-arrays
// One for \story
// One for the specific events
var parts = [[\story], [\ands, \incredible, \remember, \colours, \intimacy]];
loop {
// Either yield \story (since it's alone in its sub-array)
// or the first specific event in the subarray
parts[0][0].yield;
// If parts[0] is [\story], nothing happens
// If it's the array of the specific events, rotate it to change parts[0][0]
parts[0] = parts[0].rotate;
// Alternate between [\story] and the specific events in parts[0]
parts = parts.rotate;
// Randomly add a \silent event with a 20% probability
0.2.coin.if {\silence.yield}
}
})


## Conclusion

I hope this very short exploration of the code of In-between, longing gave you some interesting ideas to insert into your own creations. There’s plenty more to cover, but these bits are the ones I think can be useful in other creations.
In any case, if you have any questions, feel free to reach out.

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.